I found that the images depicting equations were a bit difficult to read due to their low resolution, so I converted all of the equations to MathML with the help of LaTeXML.
For the HTML version, I recommend using Firefox to read it, as it's the only browser thus far to offer exceptionally good MathML support. MathJax can also be used to render the MathML in other browsers. It is not included by default but it has been tested and catered to in terms of CSS styling. I would suggest getting a local installation via NPM like so:
npm install --prefix ./ mathjax
and then, using a regex-replace method with your favorite text editor, this line of html would be added to each node*.html file's head section:
<script id="MathJax-script" async src="node_modules/mathjax/es5/tex-mml-chtml.js"></script>
Several EPUB3 readers are able to render MathML via MathJax. A table showing the MathML support for various readers can be found here: https://docs.mathjax.org/en/v2.7-latest/misc/epub.html
(Apr 13, 2021)